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Food glossary

Fish

Fish

White fish

Brill

A member of the flat fish family, the brill is a medium-sized, sandy-brown fish with a creamy white underside. Brill is most commonly found on sandy seabeds where it feeds on small fish, squid and crustaceans. They can weigh up to 3kg but are usually smaller; a whole brill weighing 1.5kg will serve 4. Increasingly popular in restaurants it is a fine eating fish, similar to turbot in terms of flavour and texture but not as expensive. Line-caught Cornish Whole brill and Brill fillets, are available from Waitrose. Turbot can be used instead of brill in recipes.

Uses: Fish weighing up to about 2kg are best cooked whole either poached, fried or grilled. Fillets of brill can be coated in egg and breadcrumbs and shallow fried in butter.

To store: Refrigerate as soon as possible after purchase, either in the original wrapping or in a sealed airtight plastic container, and use within 24 hours. Fish can be frozen for up to 3 months, thaw thoroughly in the fridge before use and never refreeze fish that has been previously frozen.

To prepare: Ask the fishmonger at Waitrose to fillet larger brill or skin smaller, whole fish.

To cook: Whole brill or fillets can be fried as they are or coated in seasoned flour or egg and breadcrumbs, heat a little oil and butter in a frying pan, and cook fillets for 1-2 minutes on each side and whole fish for 8-10 minutes on each side. Strips of fillet can be coated in flour and stir-fried in a little oil for 2-3 minutes.To grill whole brill or fillets, brush with olive oil or melted butter and sprinkle with lemon juice, cook under a preheated medium grill turning once, cook fillets for 3-4 minutes on each side and a whole fish for 8-10 minutes on each side.

Refer to your recipe for specific timings and temperatures.To poach brill, place the whole fish or fillets in a pan and just cover with wine or stock and flavourings, cover and bring very slowly to the boil, simmer gently for 2-3 minutes and leave the fish to cool in the liquid where it will finish cooking. The cooking liquor can be used to make a sauce.

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Cod

Atlantic cod used to be abundant but as a result of over-fishing and poor fishery management this is no longer the case. Concerns over our own native fish stocks, particularly in the North Sea, led to our decision to source all our fresh cod from Iceland, which has one of the most well managed fisheries in the northern hemisphere. Caught mainly by fishing vessels using long line fishing methods, the fish are filleted to Waitrose specifications, boxed and air freighted daily to the UK.

One of the most popular white fish, cod is a very versatile fish and can be cooked and served in a variety of ways. Cod fillet is a convenient, meaty cut of fish with very few bones. When buying cod fillet allow 125 to 200g per portion. Waitrose stock a selection of cod fillet including Icelandic prime cod fillet (skinless and boneless), Icelandic cod fillet (skin on) and Traditionally smoked cod fillet (undyed and dyed).

Waitrose smoked cod is produced from fresh Icelandic cod, the fillets are skinned and placed in a brine solution for a few minutes. They are then hung on stainless steel racks and placed in brick built chimneys where they are smoked for 10-12 hours over smouldering oak and beech sawdust. Smoked cod can be cooked in a variety of ways and can be served on its own or with fresh cod fillet for a delicious contrast in flavours. Haddock can be used as a substitute in any recipe using cod.

Uses: Cod fillets can be baked, fried or poached. Traditional accompaniments to cod include parsley sauce and lemon wedges. Cod can be included in a variety of dishes including pies, risottos, soups and casseroles.

To store: Refrigerate as soon as possible after purchase, either in the original wrapping or in a sealed airtight plastic container and use within 24 hours. Fish can be frozen for up to 3 months, thaw thoroughly in the fridge before use and never refreeze fish that has been previously frozen.

To cook: To bake cod fillets, wrap the fillets in foil or greaseproof paper with fresh herbs (parsley and tarragon are particularly good) and plenty of seasoning or in a covered ovenproof dish with some liquid (wine, stock or tomatoes), herbs and seasoning. Bake for 15 to 20 minutes at 180°C, gas mark 4 or until the flesh has turned opaque and is just starting to flake.To deep fry cod, coat the fillets in seasoned flour, batter and egg or breadcrumbs, cook in oil heated to 190°C until golden brown (about 4 to 5 minutes) and drain well on kitchen paper.

To shallow fry, heat a little oil or oil and butter in a frying pan, add the fillets and cook for 4 to 5 minutes turning once, until lightly browned and the flesh has turned opaque and is just starting to flake. To poach fillets, place in a pan and just cover with water, wine and flavourings, cover and slowly bring to the boil, simmer for 2 minutes and then remove using a slotted spoon. The cooking liquid can be used to make a sauce to accompany the cooked fish.

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Cod roe

The roes are the eggs from mature female fish. A full roe consists of two lobes joined together by membrane, the eggs being held together in translucent skin. They can vary in colour from pink to deep red. Fresh Icelandic cod roe is available in Waitrose.

To store: Refrigerate as soon as possible after purchase, either in the original wrapping or in a sealed airtight plastic container and use within 24 hours.

To cook: Place the whole roe in salted boiling water and then simmer for approximately 10 minutes. Drain them and leave to cool. They can be either eaten cold or sliced thickly, coated in seasoned flour and fried in butter or oil until crisp.

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Dover sole

A member of the flat fish family, the Dover sole has a light to medium brown skin with black mottling and a creamy underside. Dover sole is one of the most highly regarded of all the flat fish with a firm, delicious flavoured flesh. A large Dover sole can weigh up to 3kg but the average weight is 300-600g, a 300g fish will serve one, or for two servings buy a single fish weighing around 600g. Lemon sole can be used instead of Dover sole in recipes although Dover sole is considered to have a superior flavour.

Uses: Dover sole is very versatile and can be cooked whole or as fillets. They can be fried, grilled or poached.

To store: Refrigerate as soon as possible after purchase, either in the original wrapping or in a sealed airtight plastic container and use within 24 hours. Fish can be frozen for up to 3 months, thaw thoroughly in the fridge before use and never refreeze fish that has been previously frozen.

To prepare: Dover sole are traditionally skinned on the dark side only, leaving the white skin of the underside in place. A large Dover sole will give two large double fillets or four single fillets. Buy Dover sole whole, skinned or filleted (ask the fishmonger at Waitrose to do this for you) depending on how you are going to cook and serve the fish.

To cook: Whole Dover sole or fillets can be fried as they are or coated in seasoned flour or egg and breadcrumbs, heat a little oil and butter in a frying pan, and cook fillets for 1-2 minutes on each side and whole fish for 8-10 minutes on each side. Strips of fillet can be coated in flour and stir-fried in a little oil for 2-3 minutes.To grill whole Dover sole or fillets, brush with olive oil or melted butter and sprinkle with lemon juice, cook under a preheated medium grill turning once, cook fillets for 3-4 minutes on each side and a whole fish for 8-10 minutes on each side. Refer to your recipe for specific timings and temperatures.To poach Dover sole, place the whole fish or fillets in a pan and just cover with wine or stock and flavourings, cover and bring very slowly to the boil, simmer gently for 2-3 minutes and leave the fish to cool in the liquid where it will finish cooking. The cooking liquor can be used to make a sauce.

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Haddock

A member of the cod family, but smaller in size, haddock has a greyish-brown back with a white underside and a conspicuous black blotch on each side. It is native to the northern seas of North America and Europe and like the Atlantic cod has been subjected to the same pressures of over fishing. As a result, all of Waitrose fresh haddock is sourced from Iceland, which has one of the most well managed fisheries in the northern hemisphere. Its flaky white flesh has a delicate flavour and a soft texture. Smoked haddock is one of the most popular varieties of smoked fish and it has a unique succulent and delicious flavour. Icelandic haddock fillets and Traditionally smoked haddock fillets (undyed and dyed) are available in Waitrose. The traditionally smoked haddock is produced from fresh Icelandic haddock. The fillets are placed in a brine solution for a few minutes and then hung on stainless steel racks to drain. The full racks are then placed in a brick built chimney and smoked for 10 to 12 hours over smouldering oak and beech chippings.

Uses: Haddock is versatile and can be cooked in the same way as cod, grilled or baked, and it is very good deep-fried for fish and chips. A combination of haddock and smoked haddock is good for including in recipes such as fish pie, fish cakes, soups and bakes. Smoked haddock can be grilled or poached and can be included in pâtés, mousses, kedgeree and omelettes.

To store: Refrigerate as soon as possible after purchase, either in the original wrapping or in a sealed airtight plastic container, and use within 24 hours. Fish can be frozen for up to 3 months, thaw thoroughly in the fridge before use and never refreeze fish that has been previously frozen.

To cook: To bake haddock fillets, wrap the fillets in foil or greaseproof paper with fresh herbs and plenty of seasoning or in a covered ovenproof dish with wine or stock, herbs and seasoning. Bake for 15 to 20 minutes at 180°C, gas mark 4 or until the flesh has turned opaque and is just starting to flake.To deep fry haddock, coat the unskinned fillets in seasoned flour, batter and egg or breadcrumbs, cook in oil heated to 190°C until golden brown (about 4 to 5 minutes) and drain well on kitchen paper.To shallow fry, heat a little oil or oil and butter in a frying pan, add the fillets and cook for 4 to 5 minutes turning once, until lightly browned and the flesh has turned opaque and is just starting to flake.To poach fillets, place in a pan and just cover with water, wine or milk and flavourings, cover and slowly bring to the boil, simmer for 2 to 4 minutes and then remove using a slotted spoon. The cooking liquid can be used to make a sauce to accompany the cooked fish.

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Halibut

The Atlantic halibut is by far the largest of all the flat fish. It can grow up to 3m in length and can weigh over 300kg. Its eyes are on the right side of its body, which is dark olive-green in colour and its underside is pearly white. Halibut has a white flesh with a meaty texture and a delicious flavour. Fresh halibut steaks and fillets are available from Waitrose. When buying steaks and fillets allow about 200g per person. Turbot can be used instead of halibut.

Uses: Halibut fillets and steaks can be baked, grilled or fried.

To store: Refrigerate as soon as possible after purchase, either in the original wrapping or in a sealed airtight plastic container, and use within 24 hours. Fish can be frozen for up to 3 months, thaw thoroughly in the fridge before use and never refreeze fish that has been previously frozen.

To cook: To bake, wrap the fish in foil or greaseproof paper with fresh herbs and seasoning or in a covered ovenproof dish with wine or stock, herbs and seasoning. Bake for 15-20 minutes at 180°C, gas mark 4 or until the flesh has turned opaque and is just starting to flake.To grill, brush with a little olive oil or melted butter (to prevent drying out) and season well before cooking, cook under a preheated medium grill for 5-6 minutes, turning once and brush with more oil or melted butter during cooking if necessary.To shallow fry, heat a little oil or oil and butter in a frying pan, add the fish and cook for 4-5 minutes turning once, until lightly browned and the flesh has turned opaque and is just starting to flake.

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Hoki

Hoki is a member of the hake family and is sometimes referred to as blue hake (it has a blue-green skin with a silver coloured underside), it has a firm white flesh that flakes easily and has few bones. It is native to New Zealand and the average size is 65 to 100cm although they can be as long as 130cm. Hoki prime fillet (skinless and boneless) is sold in Waitrose.

Uses: Hoki can be cooked in the same way as cod or haddock, it is ideal for frying, baking and grilling and is also good in pies, fish cakes and bakes.

To store: Refrigerate hoki prime fillet as soon as possible after purchase, either in the original wrapping or in a sealed airtight plastic container, and eat within 24 hours. Fish can be frozen for up to 3 months, thaw thoroughly in the fridge before use and never refreeze fish that has been previously frozen.

To cook: To shallow fry hoki prime fillet, heat a little oil and butter in a frying pan and cook for 3 to 4 minutes on each side.To grill or barbecue, place fillet under a medium-hot preheated grill or over barbecue coals, brush the fish with a little olive oil (try one of the flavoured oils available in Waitrose) and cook for 3 to 5 minutes on each side. If cooking on a barbecue then extra care is needed.To bake hoki, wrap the fish in foil or greaseproof paper with fresh herbs, lemon slices and seasoning and place in a roasting tin. Bake in a preheated oven at 180°C, gas mark 4 for 15-20 minutes (check your recipe for specific timings).

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Monkfish

A large fish, which can be up to 2m in length, monkfish are native to the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. It is an unattractive-looking specimen with a head that is almost half the size of its whole length. It attracts its prey, with loose body tags and fringes that move and sway in the water, and dorsal fins that resemble fishing rods this accounts for its alternative name of anglerfish.Monkfish are found mainly in the coastal waters of south west of England and western Scotland. The tail is the only part of the fish that is used in cookery, it has a prized firm white flesh with a subtle sweetness that is often compared to lobster meat. The tail has a single bone, the backbone running down its centre, which makes it very easy to prepare, cook and eat. When buying tails with bone in allow about 200g per person. Skinned monkfish tail and Monkfish fillet are sold in Waitrose.

Uses: A whole monkfish tail can be split in two, stuffed and tied together and then baked in one piece. Fillets can be pan-fried or grilled or baked. Fillets can also be cubed and used for kebabs, in stir fries, stew or soups. Mediterranean flavourings such as tomatoes, peppers, basil and garlic, go particularly well with monkfish.

To store: Refrigerate monkfish as soon as possible after buying, either in the original wrapping or in a sealed airtight plastic container and use within 24 hours. Fish can be frozen for up to 3 months, thaw thoroughly in the fridge before use and never refreeze fish that has been previously frozen.

To prepare: Monkfish fillets are ready to cook. To prepare a monkfish tail it needs to be skinned and the membrane removed, ask the fishmonger at Waitrose to do this for you.

To cook: To bake a whole tail (stuffed or unstuffed), sprinkle it with a little olive oil and season well, roast in a preheated oven at 230°C, gas mark 8 for 25 to 30 minutes or until the fish is firm to the touch, cover with foil and allow to rest for 5 minutes before serving.To pan-fry monkfish fillets, heat a little olive oil or butter in a frying pan and fry the fillets for 2 to 3 minutes on each side.To grill fillets, preheat the grill to medium and brush the fish with a little olive oil (try one of the flavoured oils available from Waitrose) or melted butter, season well and cook for 3 to 4 minutes on each side, brushing with oil or melted butter during the cooking if necessary.

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Plaice

One of the better-known varieties of flat fish, plaice is a light to dark brown colour with orange and red spots and a white underside. It has a distinctive flavour with a medium soft texture. When buying plaice allow a whole 350-450g fish or a 175g fillet per person. Waitrose sell Fresh whole plaice and Fresh plaice fillets that are sourced from UK and Icelandic waters. Sole or brill can be used instead of plaice.

Uses: Plaice is very versatile and can be cooked whole or as fillets. They can be fried, grilled or poached.

To store: Refrigerate as soon as possible after purchase, either in the original wrapping or in a sealed airtight plastic container, and use within 24 hours. Fish can be frozen for up to 3 months, thaw thoroughly in the fridge before use and never refreeze fish that has been previously frozen.

To cook: Whole plaice or fillets can be fried as they are or coated in seasoned flour or egg and breadcrumbs, heat a little oil and butter in a frying pan, and cook fillets for 1-2 minutes on each side and whole fish for 8-10 minutes on each side. Strips of fillet can be coated in flour and stir-fried in a little oil for 2-3 minutes. To grill whole plaice or fillets, brush with olive oil or melted butter and sprinkle with lemon juice, cook under a preheated medium grill turning once, cook fillets for 3-4 minutes on each side and a whole fish for 8-10 minutes on each side. Refer to your recipe for specific timings and temperatures. To poach plaice, place the whole fish or fillets in a pan and just cover with wine or stock and flavourings, cover and bring very slowly to the boil, simmer gently for 2-3 minutes and leave the fish to cool in the liquid where it will finish cooking. The cooking liquor can be used to make a sauce.

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Red mullet

One of the tastiest of all seafish, these small fish measuring no more than 40cm long have an attractive reddish-pink skin with golden streaks. They are found in the Atlantic and Mediterranean oceans. The lean, firm white flesh has a distinctive flavour, it is quite rich and 2 or 3 small fillets will be sufficient for one person. Whole red mullet and Cornish red mullet fillets are sold in Waitrose. Red snapper can be used instead of red mullet.

Uses: Red mullet fillets are best grilled, pan-fried or baked. The flavour of red mullet goes particularly well with Mediterranean ingredients such as tomatoes, olive oil, fennel and basil.

To store: Refrigerate as soon as possible after purchase, either in the original wrapping or in a sealed airtight plastic container and use within 24 hours. Fish can be frozen for up to 3 months, thaw thoroughly in the fridge before use and never refreeze fish that has been previously frozen.

To prepare: Fillets need little preparation, but are best scaled prior to cooking ask the fishmonger at Waitrose to do this for you. Whole red mullet should be scaled and gutted before cooking, the fishmonger at Waitrose will do this for you.

To cook: To shallow fry, heat a little oil and butter in a frying pan and cook for 3 to 4 minutes on each side.To grill, place under a medium-hot preheated grill, brush the fish with a little olive oil (try one of the flavoured oils available in Waitrose) and cook for 3 to 5 minutes on each side.To bake, wrap in foil or greaseproof paper with fresh herbs, lemon, tomato or fennel slices and seasoning and place in a roasting tin. Bake in a preheated oven at 180°C, gas mark 4 for 10 to 15 minutes (check your recipe for specific timings).

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Red snapper

With its distinctive red skin, eyes and fins, red snapper is an attractive and tasty tropical fish found throughout the world. Red snapper has a firm, slightly off white flesh with a good flavour. A red snapper weighing 1kg is ideal for two servings, and a 2kg fish is suitable for four servings. Whole red snapper are sold in Waitrose. Gilthead bream can be used instead of red snapper.

Uses: Red snapper is usually cooked whole and can be baked, grilled or pan-fried. It is especially good flavoured with Caribbean flavours such as coconut, chilli, mango and rum.

To store: Refrigerate as soon as possible after purchase, either in the original wrapping or in a sealed airtight plastic container and use within 24 hours. Fish can be frozen for up to 3 months, thaw thoroughly in the fridge before use and never refreeze fish that has been previously frozen.

To prepare: Red snapper should be gutted and cleaned before cooking, ask the fishmonger at Waitrose to do this for you.

To cook: To bake red snapper, wrap it in greaseproof paper or foil with chopped chilli and sliced mango or herbs and seasonings, bake in a preheated oven at 180°C, gas mark 4 for 25 to 35 minutes or until the flesh is tender.To grill, brush the prepared fish with a little olive oil or melted butter and cook under a preheated medium grill for up to 8 to 10 minutes on each side.To pan-fry, heat a little olive oil or butter in a frying pan and cook for up to 8 to 10 minutes on each side, brushing with oil or melted butter during cooking if necessary.

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Sea bass

Sea bass are one of the finest fish available in the UK. Similar in shape to salmon, they are predominantly silver with a blue-grey back. Line-caught wild Cornish sea bass weighing 1.5 to 2.5kg are available in Waitrose as well as farm reared French sea bass. The flesh is firm, well flavoured and deliciously moist. When buying a whole fish allow about 200g per serving.

Uses: Sea bass are versatile and the fillets and whole fish can be cooked by grilling, baking or pan-frying. The flesh of sea bass has a delicate flavour that goes well with a variety of other ingredients including fennel, tomato, ginger and spring onions (a popular Chinese dish). A whole cooked sea bass can be served cold with mayonnaise in a similar way to a whole salmon. Sea bass is served raw in Japan as sashimi.

To store: Refrigerate sea bass as soon as possible after purchase, either in the original wrapping or in a sealed airtight plastic container, and eat within 24 hours. Fish can be frozen for up to 3 months, thaw thoroughly in the fridge before use and never refreeze fish that has been previously frozen.

To prepare: Fillets require little preparation, but are best scaled before cooking. Whole fish need to be scaled and cleaned before cooking and for safety, the spines on the fins trimmed, the fishmonger at Waitrose will prepare the fish to your requirements.

To cook: Fry fillets in a little olive oil and butter for 2 to 3 minutes on each side and a whole fish for up to 8 to 10 minutes on each side (check your recipe for specific timings). Cook fillets under a preheated medium grill for 2 to 3 minutes, turning once and brushing with olive oil occasionally. Cook a whole fish under a preheated medium grill for 8 to 10 minutes on each side (check your recipe for specific timings).To bake a whole sea bass wrap it in foil or greaseproof paper with herbs and seasoning. Cook in a preheated oven at 180°C, gas mark 4 for 30 to 40 minutes (check your recipe for specific timings).

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Sea bream

Found throughout the world, there are many different varieties of sea bream. Waitrose sell red sea bream and gilthead sea bream.

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Red sea bream

New Zealand red sea bream is sold in Waitrose. This white-fleshed fish is the only species of sea bream native to New Zealand where it is also known as snapper. It lives in deep waters around the North Island and northern parts of the South Island where it feeds on crustaceans and molluscs which give its flesh a particularly tasty flavour. It is fished from October to April and air-freighted fresh to Waitrose stores. A whole red sea bream weighing about 500g is ideal for serving 2 people.

Uses: Red sea bream can be grilled, baked or fried. Thai flavourings such as lemon grass, ginger, lime and chillies all go particularly well with red sea bream.

To store: Refrigerate as soon as possible after purchase, either in the original wrapping or in a sealed airtight plastic container, and eat within 24 hours. Fish can be frozen for up to 3 months, thaw thoroughly in the fridge before use and never refreeze fish that has been previously frozen.

To prepare: Whole fish need to be cleaned, gutted and scaled before cooking. Ask the fishmonger at Waitrose to do this for you. Red sea bream fillets require little preparation but as with the whole fish they are best scaled before cooking.

To cook: To shallow fry fillets or a whole fish, heat a little oil and butter in a frying pan, fry fillets for 2 to 3 minutes on each side and a whole fish for 8 to 10 minutes on each side. To grill, brush the fillets or whole fish with olive oil and season well, preheat the grill to medium and cook fillets for 2 to 3 minutes on each side and a whole fish for 8 to 10 minutes.

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Gilthead bream

Waitrose sells farm reared gilthead bream from Greece. Also known as daurade, the gilthead bream is reputed to be the finest of all sea breams. It has a firm textured flesh with a delicate flavour. A whole gilthead bream usually measures about 20cm and weighs 450g. Red snapper or sea bass can be used instead of gilthead bream.

Uses: Sea bream can be grilled, baked or fried.

To store: Refrigerate as soon as possible after purchase, either in the original wrapping or in a sealed airtight plastic container, and eat within 24 hours. Fish can be frozen for up to 3 months, thaw thoroughly in the fridge before use and never refreeze fish that has been previously frozen.

To prepare: Whole fish need to be cleaned, gutted and scaled before cooking. Ask the fishmonger at Waitrose to do this for you. Sea bream fillets require little preparation but as with the whole fish they are best scaled before cooking.

To cook: To shallow fry fillets or a whole fish, heat a little oil and butter in a frying pan, fry fillets for 2 to 3 minutes on each side and a whole fish for 8 to 10 minutes on each side.To grill, brush the fillets or whole fish with olive oil and season well, preheat the grill to medium and cook fillets for 2 to 3 minutes on each side and a whole fish for 8 to 10 minutes.

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Skate

The Atlantic skate is a very unusual looking fish with a long snout and large kite-shaped body. Skate belong to the family of cartilaginous fish, which means that their skeleton is made from cartilage and not bone. As well as the true skate there are a number of ray species that can be legally sold as skate. The thornback ray (roker) and blonde ray being the more common. Because of concerns over declining stocks of Atlantic skate, the Skate wings sold in Waitrose are from the various rays. Once cooked the pinkish-white flesh has a moist meaty texture and a good flavour.

Uses: Skate wings can be poached or grilled, the cooked flesh of skate can also be included in soups, mousses and stews. Capers and lemon or lime juice make a simple accompaniment to grilled skate wings.

To store: Refrigerate as soon as possible after purchase, either in the original wrapping or in a sealed airtight plastic container and use within 24 hours. Fish can be frozen for up to 3 months, thaw thoroughly in the fridge before use and never refreeze fish that has been previously frozen.

To prepare: Skate wings should be rinsed well in cold water before cooking. The flesh is firmly attached to the skeleton prior to cooking but once cooked the flesh comes away easily from the cartilage.

To cook: To poach skate wings, place in a saucepan and cover with water, wine, stock and flavourings and cook for 7-10 minutes or until the flesh is just beginning to come away from the cartilage.To grill, brush the wings with melted butter or olive oil and cook for 4-5 minutes on each side, brushing with more butter or oil during the cooking if necessary.

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Turbot

This large flat fish has a rich and firm-textured creamy white flesh and a wonderful, sweet flavour. It is not the most attractive-looking fish and has a small head with an almost circular body and a tough uneven skin, the white underside of the fish may have a grey tinge. Turbot vary in weight from around 2kg to 12kg, the smaller varieties are known as chicken turbot while at the larger end of the scale they can measure up to 1m in length. Turbot steaks and fillets are available from Waitrose. Halibut can be used instead of turbot.

Uses: Turbot fillets and steaks can be baked, grilled, fried and poached. The flesh can also be cubed for making into kebabs.

To store: Refrigerate as soon as possible after purchase, either in the original wrapping or in a sealed airtight plastic container, and use within 24 hours. Fish can be frozen for up to 3 months, thaw thoroughly in the fridge before use and never refreeze fish that has been previously frozen.

To cook: To bake, wrap the fish in foil or greaseproof paper with fresh herbs and seasoning or place in a covered ovenproof dish with wine or stock, herbs and seasoning. Bake for 15–20 minutes at 180°C, gas mark 4 or until the flesh has turned opaque and is just starting to flake. To grill, brush with a little olive oil or melted butter (to prevent drying out) and season well before cooking, cook under a preheated medium grill for 5–6 minutes, turning once and brush with more oil or melted butter during cooking if necessary. To shallow fry, heat a little oil or oil and butter in a frying pan, add the fish and cook for 4–5 minutes turning once, until lightly browned and the flesh has turned opaque and is just starting to flake. To poach turbot, place the fillets or steaks in a pan and just cover with wine or stock and flavourings, cover and bring very slowly to the boil, simmer gently for 2–3 minutes and leave the fish to cool in the liquid where it will finish cooking. The cooking liquor can be used to make a sauce.

All oily fish, as well as being an excellent source of protein, are rich in omega 3 fats. These fats are polyunsaturated and are best known for their beneficial effects on reducing and preventing heart disease and strokes when eaten as part of a healthy balanced diet.

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Herring

A slim, delicately flavoured oily fish with a richly flavoured flesh. Herrings contain a large number of small edible soft bones, which are almost impossible to remove. Whole herring are sold in Waitrose. Mackerel or sardines can be used instead of herring.

Uses: Herrings are ideal for grilling or barbecuing due to the oiliness of their flesh. They can be cooked with a variety of ingredients, tangy ingredients such as gooseberries, mustard and lemon juice to help counteract the richness of the flesh. Whole herring can be stuffed and baked.

To store: Refrigerate herrings as soon as possible after purchase either in the original wrapping or in a sealed airtight plastic container, and eat within 24 hours. Fish can be frozen for up to 3 months, thaw thoroughly in the fridge before use and never refreeze fish that has been previously frozen.

To prepare: Herring cutlets are ready to cook. Whole herring should be gutted and cleaned before cooking - ask the fishmonger at Waitrose to do this for you. Before grilling or barbecuing whole herrings, score with a sharp knife on both sides.

To cook: To grill or barbecue whole herrings or fillets, cook under a preheated medium grill or on a ready-to-cook barbecue for 4 to 5 minutes for fillets and 10 to 15 minutes for whole fish, turning once. If cooking on a barbecue then extra care is needed.To bake whole herrings, wrap in foil or greaseproof paper with herbs and seasoning, cook in a preheated oven at 180°C, gas mark 4 for 15 to 20 minutes (check your recipe for specific timings).

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Kippers

Kippers are smoked herrings, Waitrose sell Craster kippers from Craster in Northumberland and Oak smoked kipper cutlets with butter. Waitrose Craster kippers are produced by a fourth generation family business specialising in the traditional method of oak smoking kippers, the fish are cured in the original smokehouses which are over 130 years old. Whole herrings are split in half and placed in a brine solution for a few minutes. They are then hung on tenterhooks and placed in the smokehouses. Fires are placed under the rows of herrings made of whitewood shavings and oak sawdust and these smoulder away for up to 16 hours before the kippers are ready.

Uses: Kippers can be grilled, fried or jugged and are a traditional English breakfast dish, often served with a poached egg. Jugged kippers can be used to make pâtés, mousses or dips.

To store: Refrigerate Craster kippers as soon as possible after purchase, either in the original wrapping or in a sealed airtight plastic container and use within 24 hours. Kipper cutlets keep for up to 1 week in the fridge.

To cook: To avoid the overpowering odour of cooked kippers, the best cooking method is to jug them, simply place them into a tall jug and cover with boiling water for 10 minutes. To grill kippers, place them on a grill pan skin side up, dot with butter and cook for 2 to 3 minutes. To fry kippers melt a little butter in a frying pan and cook for 2 to 3 minutes. Kipper cutlets can be boiled, in the pack they are sold in, for 15 minutes or micro-waved on full for 2 to 3 minutes (check the pack for specific instructions).

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Mackerel

Fresh mackerel These attractive oily fish they have green and black stripes on their backs and silver-coloured undersides, have a meaty flesh with a distinctive full flavour. Their flesh is a pale beige almost pink colour. When buying whole mackerel allow 200 to 225g per serving, if buying prepared and cleaned mackerel allow 175 to 200g per serving. Waitrose sell Cornish mackerel. Herrings or sardines can be used instead of mackerel.

Uses: Whole mackerel can be grilled, barbecued or stuffed and baked. Like herrings they are best served with a sharp sauce to complement the rich flesh horseradish, gooseberry, mustard and lemon juice are all popular accompanying ingredients. Fillets are best grilled, barbecued or fried.

To store: Refrigerate mackerel as soon as possible after purchase either in the original wrapping or in a sealed airtight plastic container, and eat within 24 hours. Fish can be frozen for up to 3 months, thaw thoroughly in the fridge before use and never refreeze fish that has been previously frozen.

To prepare: Whole mackerel should be gutted and cleaned before cooking ask the fishmonger at Waitrose to do this for you. Before grilling or barbecuing whole mackerel score with a sharp knife on both sides.

To cook: To grill or barbecue whole mackerel or fillets, cook under a preheated medium grill or on a ready-to-cook barbecue for 4 to 5 minutes for fillets and 10 to 15 minutes for whole fish, turning once. If cooking on a barbecue then extra care is needed.To bake whole mackerel, wrap in foil or greaseproof paper with herbs and seasoning, cook in a preheated oven at 180°C, gas mark 4 for 15 to 20 minutes (check your recipe for specific timings).To fry fillets, heat a little oil in a frying pan and fry for 2 to 3 minutes on each side.

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Smoked mackerel

Mackerel is an oily fish that once smoked has a distinctive flavour and a rich, creamy texture. Mackerel is hot smoked and the end result is ready to eat. Ready-to-eat Smoked mackerel fillets and ready-to-eat Smoked mackerel with peppercorns are sold in Waitrose.

Uses: Smoked mackerel is a popular choice for a simple starter served with lemon wedges and brown bread and butter or made into pâté. Smoked mackerel can also be included in pies, quiches, omelettes, pasta and rice dishes and salads. Horseradish sauce and lemon wedges are traditional accompaniments to smoked mackerel.

To store: Refrigerate smoked mackerel from the fish service counter as soon as possible after buying, either in the original wrapping or in a sealed airtight plastic container and use within 24 hours. Keep vacuum-packed smoked mackerel in the fridge and consume by the use by date, once opened eat within 2 days.

To prepare: Smoked mackerel needs little preparation and filleting removes all the major bones. To skin smoked mackerel, lay the fillets on a chopping board, skin side up and starting at one end peel the skin away from the flesh then remove any small bones that remain before serving.

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Salmon

Until fairly recently fresh salmon was considered to be a luxury, nowadays however it is widely available and affordable. It has a firm and rich pale pink flesh. Select Farm Salmon is available from Waitrose. It comes from the waters off the Orkney and Shetland Islands. Organic Scottish salmon, certified by The Soil Association, is also available in Waitrose. Wild Alaskan salmon is also sold. Whole Scottish salmon, Salmon fillets, Salmon steaks and joints are available. If you buy a whole salmon allow about 350 to 400g per serving, choose salmon fillet portions or steaks of around 200g per person. Large trout or sea trout can be used in place of salmon.

Uses: Salmon is a versatile fish and can be served hot or cold. It can be cooked in a variety of ways, including grilling, frying or baking. It combines well with a range of different flavours including spicy seasonings, rich creamy wine sauces and simple flavourings such as lemon or fresh herbs.

To store: Keep in the fridge either in the original wrapping or in a sealed airtight plastic container, and eat within 24 hours of purchase. Fish can be frozen for up to 3 months, thaw thoroughly in the fridge before use and never refreeze fish that has been previously frozen.

To prepare: Fillets contain very few bones and can be bought skinned or unskinned. Whole fish can be bought gutted and ready to cook whole or divided into portions. Steaks are best cooked with the skin on to help them keep their shape and they can be cooked with or without the bone in.

To cook: To shallow fry fillets or steaks, heat a little oil and butter in a frying pan and cook for 3 to 4 minutes on each side.To grill fillets or steaks, place under a medium-hot preheated grill, brush the fish with a little olive oil (try one of the flavoured oils available in Waitrose) and cook for 3 to 5 minutes on each side.To bake a whole salmon, wrap the prepared fish in foil or greaseproof paper with fresh herbs, lemon slices and seasoning and place in a roasting tin. Bake in a preheated oven at 180°C, gas mark 4 for 30 to 40 minutes for a medium-sized fish (check your recipe for specific timings).

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Smoked salmon

Smoked salmon is one of the most popular types of smoked fish, it is made by placing the fish in brine, curing it in salt and sugar and then smoking it over oak chippings. Smoked salmon varies in colour from a pale pink to a reddish brown colour, depending on the type and strength of the cure and the length of time it is smoked for. A variety of different types of smoked salmon, sold in vacuum packs, are available in Waitrose including Scottish smoked salmon, mild oak smoke (ready-sliced), Scottish smoked salmon, mild oak smoke (trimmings) and Organic smoked Orkney salmon, mild oak smoke (ready-sliced). Ready-sliced smoked salmon is individually interleaved for ease of separating the slices.

Uses: Smoked salmon can be served simply with brown bread and butter, lemon juice and black pepper. Smoked salmon trimmings are a more economical buy than slices and they are ideal for adding to scrambled eggs, freshly cooked pasta, flans, tartlets, sauces and pâtés.

To store: Keep unopened smoked salmon in the fridge and consume by the use by date. Once opened, store any remaining salmon well wrapped in the fridge and use within 2 days. Smoked salmon can be frozen on the day of purchase, use within one month and defrost thoroughly before using. Do not refreeze any fish that has been previously frozen.

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Canned salmon

Quite different from fresh or smoked salmon, canned salmon is a convenient form of salmon. Canned salmon contains a higher amount of calcium than fresh, because during the canning process the bones are softened enough to for them to be eaten. Waitrose sell canned pink salmon with a light texture and colour and canned red salmon, which is considered to have a superior flavour, a rich colour and a firm texture.

Uses: Canned salmon can be used in a variety of ways, use red salmon for salads and recipes where the finished appearance of the dish is important. Use pink salmon for sandwiches, soups, quiches, mousses, soufflés and fish cakes or any dish where the fish will be mixed with other ingredients.

To store: Keep in a cool, dry place for up to 1 year. Once opened, transfer the contents to a non-metallic container, cover, refrigerate and use within 24 hours.

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Sardines

Fresh sardines

These small, tasty fish are becoming increasingly popular. They are slender, have a silvery-blue skin and a rich, oily flesh. Named after Sardinia where they used to be abundant, the majority of sardines are now found in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Fresh Cornish sardines are available in Waitrose between June and September with frozen sardines available all year round. Waitrose Fresh Cornish Sardines are caught by a number of small 20-24 foot vessels based in and around Mevagissey. The fishermen set their nets at night and haul them in again by first light. Allow 3 to 5 sardines per person, depending on their size.

Uses: Fresh sardines can be grilled or barbecued or they can be stuffed with a variety of flavourings including breadcrumbs with Parmesan cheese, chopped tomatoes, capers and anchovies, and then baked. Smaller sardines are ideal for grilling and have the best flavour but larger specimens are best for stuffing.

To store: Refrigerate fresh sardines as soon as possible after purchase, either in the original wrapping or in a sealed airtight plastic container, and use within 24 hours. Fish can be frozen for up to 3 months, thaw thoroughly in the fridge before use and never refreeze fish that has been previously frozen.

To prepare: Fresh sardines should be boned and gutted before cooking. Hold the head of the fish just behind the gills, snap it off and discard. Insert a finger into the head end of the fish and run it down the length of the fish to open it up. Scoop out the innards using a teaspoon and discard. Open out the fish and strip out the backbone from the head to the tail end and cut it off at the tail end. Rinse the prepared fish under cold running water and pat dry with kitchen paper.

To cook: To grill or barbecue sardines, slash the skin lightly before cooking and season well, cook under a preheated medium grill or over ready-to-cook barbecue coals for 2 to 3 minutes on each side or until the skin is crisp and the flesh cooked right through. If cooking on a barbecue then extra care is needed.To bake stuffed sardines, wrap in foil and cook in a preheated oven at 180°C, gas mark 4 for 15 to 20 minutes.

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Canned sardines

Canned sardines are a popular variety of canned fish they need no preparation and are a convenient standby. Waitrose sell a selection of canned sardines, including Sardines in tomato sauce, in soya oil, in olive oil or in brine. Sardine piccanti (sardine fillets in olive oil with hot chilli) and Sardine al limone (sardine fillets in olive oil with lemon) are also available. The canning process softens the bones of the sardines and so they can be eaten.

Uses: Canned sardines are ideal for serving on toast, in sandwiches or salads or to make into pasta sauces.

To store: Canned sardines should be stored in a cool dry place for up to 2 years, after opening place any unused sardines in a covered non-metallic container and use within 2 days.

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Swordfish

Swordfish are part of a group of fish known as the billfish, which also includes marlin and sailfish. Found throughout tropical and temperate seas, swordfish are built for speed with many streamlining features, but they best known for their long sword like beak that is used to stun and kill shoals of smaller fish. During the day they swim close to the seabed at depths between 500-800m coming to the surface to feed at night. Swordfish is considered to be one of the world's tastiest fish with a firm, sweet flavoured flesh. Fresh swordfish steaks are sold in Waitrose. When buying swordfish avoid discoloured, bruised or previously frozen fish.

Uses: Swordfish steaks can be pan-fried, grilled, baked or poached. It can be combined with a variety of strong flavours either in a marinade or during cooking, try olive oil plus a combination of ginger, lemon or lime juice, soy sauce, fresh coriander, chopped chillies or garlic.

To store: Refrigerate as soon as possible after purchase, either in the original wrapping or in a sealed airtight plastic container, and eat within 24 hours. Fish can be frozen for up to 3 months, thaw thoroughly in the fridge before use and never refreeze fish that has been previously frozen.

To prepare: Waitrose swordfish steaks are ready to cook. To marinade the steaks, spoon the marinade over the steaks and marinate for 30 minutes to 1 hour.

To cook: To pan fry, heat a little olive oil or butter in a frying pan and cook the steaks for 4 to 5 minutes one each side. To grill, brush the steaks with a little olive oil (try one of the flavoured olive oils available from Waitrose) and cook under a medium preheated grill for 4 to 5 minutes one each side, turning occasionally.

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Trout

There are a number of different types of trout, including sea trout, rainbow trout and brown trout. Loch Etive trout fillets, from the west coast of Scotland, Rainbow trout and Organic brown trout from Lord Radnor's Longford Estate, Wiltshire are available in Waitrose. The brown trout is native to the British Isles and is considered to have a superior flavour and firmer texture to its North American counterpart, the rainbow trout. Organic brown trout, certified by the Soil Association, are unique to Waitrose. Trout is very similar in appearance to salmon with a fine textured, distinctive pink flesh and a subtle flavour. Salmon can be used instead of trout.

Uses: Trout fillet can be grilled, fried or baked, lemon or lime juice and capers are simple flavouring accompaniments.

To store: Refrigerate as soon as possible after purchasing, either in the original wrapping or in a sealed airtight plastic container, and use within 24 hours. Fish can be frozen for up to 3 months, thaw thoroughly in the fridge before use and never refreeze fish that has been previously frozen.

To prepare: Fillets need no preparation and can be bought unskinned or skinned (ask the fishmonger at Waitrose to skin the fillets for you).

To cook: To shallow fry fillets, heat a little oil and butter in a frying pan and cook for 3 to 4 minutes on each side.To grill fillets, place under a medium-hot preheated grill, brush the fish with a little olive oil (try one of the flavoured oils available in Waitrose) and cook for 3 to 5 minutes on each side. To bake fillets, wrap in foil or greaseproof paper with fresh herbs, lemon slices and seasoning and place in a roasting tin. Bake in a preheated oven at 180°C, gas mark 4 for 15 to 20 minutes (check your recipe for specific timings).

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Smoked trout

A more economical alternative to smoked salmon, it is made by placing the fish in brine, curing it in salt and sugar and then smoking it over oak chippings. Smoked trout varies in colour from a pale pink to a reddish brown colour, depending on the type and strength of the cure and the length of time it is smoked for. Ready-sliced smoked trout slices (these are interleaved for ease of separating the slices) and smoked trout fillets are sold in vacuum packs in Waitrose.

Uses: Smoked trout slices can be served simply with brown bread and butter, lemon juice and black pepper, fillet or slices can be added to scrambled eggs, freshly cooked pasta, flans, tartlets, sauces and pâtés.

To store: Store unopened smoked trout in the fridge and consume by the use by date. Once opened, store any remaining trout well wrapped in the fridge and use within 2 days. Smoked trout can be frozen on the day of purchase, use within one month and defrost thoroughly before using. Do not refreeze any fish that has been previously frozen.

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Tuna

Tuna is a member of the game fish group, which includes swordfish, marlin, mahi mahi and sailfish. A number of different species of tuna are commercially fished with the most popular being yellowfin and skipjack. Waitrose Fresh tuna steaks are produced from line-caught yellowfin tuna, from the Indian and Pacific oceans.The flesh of tuna should be red to dark red in appearance and firm to the touch, with a meaty smell. Tuna, like mackerel, herrings and sardines, are oily fish and are rich in omega-3 fatty acids that can help to protect against heart disease. Tuna is a very meaty fish and a steak of about 175g is suitable for a single serving. It dries out quickly and is easily over-cooked, so it is best to cook it quickly over a high heat or slowly over a very gentle heat. Marlin steaks can be used instead of tuna steaks.

Uses: Tuna can be pan-fried, grilled or baked. For a delicious flavour marinate tuna in an oriental-style marinade with lemon grass, soy sauce, lime juice, chillies and coriander for 30 minutes before cooking. It can also be cooked with Mediterranean vegetables such as tomatoes, peppers and courgettes for a Provençal-style dish.

To store: Refrigerate tuna as soon as possible after purchase, either in the original wrapping or in a sealed airtight plastic container, and use within 24 hours. Fish can be frozen for up to 3 months, thaw thoroughly in the fridge before use and never refreeze fish that has been previously frozen.

To cook: Tuna needs very little cooking, to grill or pan-fry in olive oil, cook steaks on a high heat for about 2 minutes on each side until the fish is thoroughly cooked.To bake tuna steaks, either wrap in foil or greaseproof paper with flavourings and a drizzle of olive oil or place in a casserole dish, cover with a little wine, stock or some chopped tomatoes and cover, cook in a preheated oven (180°C, gas mark 4) for 15 to 20 minutes or until tender and thoroughly cooked.

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Canned tuna

Canned tuna is a versatile product that has a quite different texture and taste to its fresh counterpart. All Waitrose tuna is caught using fishing methods that do not harm dolphins or other marine mammals. Waitrose stock a range of canned tuna including Lightmeat tuna steak in sunflower oil, this is yellowfin tuna, which has a pale pink flesh and a subtle flavour.Two types of the popular skipjack tuna are available: Skipjack tuna in sunflower oil and the healthier and lighter variety Skipjack tuna steak in brine. White tuna in extra virgin olive oil is also available. Canned white or albacore tuna is considered to be one of the best varieties.

Uses: Canned tuna is very versatile, mixed with mayonnaise it can be served in sandwiches and salads. It is also a popular ingredient in pasta dishes, fishcakes, sauces, bakes, pâtés and fish loaves.

To store: Keep in a cool, dry place for up to 2 years and once opened transfer the contents to a non metallic container, cover, refrigerate and use within 24 hours.

To prepare: Drain the tuna and flake before adding to recipes.