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Food glossary

Milk

Milk

Breakfast milk

A rich and creamy pasteurised homogenised milk from fully traceable, pure bred herds of Jersey and Guernsey cows.

Uses: Serve on breakfast cereals or use to make porridge. It is ideal for coffee or milk drinks, making sauces or custard or wherever a rich and creamy taste is required.

To store: Keep in the fridge, use within 3 days of opening and consume by the use by date. Breakfast milk is suitable for home freezing. Freeze on the day of purchase and use within 1 month. Defrost thoroughly in the fridge for at least 8 hours and use within 3 days of thawing.

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Buttermilk

This is the liquid remaining after butter has been churned from cream. Buttermilk is also made from pasteurised skimmed milk to which a culture of lactic acid bacteria is added. Commercial buttermilk may have added cream or butter particles.

Uses: Buttermilk has acid properties and is often used in scone making.

To store: Refrigerated, this should keep at least a week.

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Channel Island

A rich, creamy milk produced by Jersey or Guernsey breeds of cow. It contains 5.2% fat and has a distinct cream line. Bottles of Channel Island milk have a gold foil cap.

Uses: In coffee, milkshakes, ice creams, or over cereals and in cooking where a really creamy taste is required.

To store: Keep in the fridge, use within 3 days of opening and consume by the use by date.

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Condensed

This is a sweetened, concentrated type of milk which can be produced from whole, semi skimmed or skimmed milk. The milk is subjected to heat treatment, then it is homogenised and sugar is added. The sweetened milk is evaporated to a concentration three times that of the original milk.

Uses: In puddings, cakes, ice creams and sweet sauces.

To store: Condensed milk is only available in cans, once opened remove from the can, cover and store in the fridge, use within 3 days.

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Evaporated

A concentrated, sterilised form of milk which has a final concentration twice that of the original milk. The milk is evaporated under pressure and homogenised. The milk is then poured into cans, which are sterilised at high temperatures.

Uses: It can be used as a pouring cream and served with puddings or fruit. It is also used to make ice creams, mousses and milk puddings.

To store: Evaporated milk is available in cans, once opened remove from the can, cover and store in the fridge, use within 3 days.

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Goat's

Available in full fat or semi skimmed varieties. Goat's milk is an ideal alternative for those on a cow's milk free diet - it has a musky, aromatic flavour and is more easily digested than cow's milk. Long life goat's milk is also available.

Uses: Goat's milk can be used as for cow's milk.

To store: Pasteurised goat's milk keeps fresh for 5 days or more in the fridge, consume by the use by date. Store long life goat's milk in a cool, dry place, once opened keep in the fridge and use within 3 days.

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Homogenised

Homogenised milk is whole milk that has undergone treatment to break up the fat globules in the milk, so that the cream does not rise to the top. It has a fat content of 4%. All essential Waitrose milk and Waitrose organic milk is homogenised.

Uses: In cooking or in drinks.

To store: Keep in the fridge, use within 3 days of opening and consume by the use by date.

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Pasteurised

The most common form of heat treatment, pasteurisation kills harmful bacteria found in untreated milk without affecting the nutritional value or taste of the milk. Pasteurised whole, semi skimmed and skimmed milk are all available. Pasteurisation also extends the keeping quality of milk.

Uses: In a wide range of recipes and drinks.

To store: Pasteurised milk keeps fresh for 5 days or more in the fridge, consume by the use by date.

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essential Waitrose milk

essential Waitrose milk is exclusive to Waitrose and comes from farms where the farmers constantly reach the highest standards of animal welfare and milk production management. All the cows producing this milk graze naturally on rich pastures in summer and are sheltered during winter. essential Waitrose milk comes from farms in Oxfordshire, Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, Wiltshire, Dorset and Gloucestershire. Full cream, semi skimmed or skimmed milk is available.

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Semi skimmed

Semi skimmed milk has about half the fat content of whole milk (at least 1.5% fat, but not more than 1.8%). It has slightly more protein, calcium and some of the vitamins of whole milk. However it is lower in calories than whole milk and in the fat-soluble vitamins A and D which are removed with the fat. Semi skimmed milk is the most popular milk in the UK. Glass bottles have a red and silver striped foil top, a green cap and label indicates a carton or plastic bottle contains semi skimmed milk.

Uses: Semi skimmed milk can be used in a wide variety of ways including in cooking, in drinks and on breakfast cereals.

To store: Pasteurised semi skimmed milk keeps fresh for 5 days or more in the fridge, consume by the use by date. Semi skimmed milk can be frozen. It's best to freeze in smaller quantities (1 or 2 pints) because it can take a long time to thaw out. Once defrosted, shake well before use to ensure the milk is well blended (it can separate during freezing and go watery after thawing).

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Skimmed

A very low fat milk (it contains 0.1% fat) skimmed milk looks and tastes less creamy than any other type of milk, because of the removal of the fat. It has slightly more protein and more of some the vitamins than whole milk, but less of vitamins A and D which are fat soluble and so removed with the fat. Glass bottles of skimmed milk have a blue and silver checked foil cap and a red cap and label indicates a carton or plastic bottle contains skimmed milk.

Uses: Skimmed milk is suitable for adults who wish to reduce their fat or calorie intake. It is not suitable for children under 5 who need the extra energy for growth.

To store: Pasteurised skimmed milk keeps fresh for 5 days or more in the fridge, consume by the use by date. Skimmed milk can be frozen, it's best to freeze in smaller quantities (1 or 2 pints) because it can take a long time to thaw out. Once defrosted, shake well before use to ensure the milk is well blended (it can separate during freezing and go watery after thawing).

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Soya

Known as Soyilk, this is made from soya beans and is suitable for anyone wishing to avoid dairy products, it is lactose-free and so is ideal for individuals who suffer from lactose intolerance. It has a subtle nutty flavour and is thicker than normal milk.

Uses: Soyilk can be used in exactly the same way as normal milk - in cooking or in tea, coffee or as a drink.

To store: Waitrose Soyilk will keep in a cool dark place for up to 1 year, once opened store in the fridge and use within 3 days.

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Sterilised

Sterilisation is a prolonged heat treatment which destroys nearly all the bacteria in milk. Sterilised milk has a distinctive taste because the heating causes a reaction between the sugars and protein in milk. It is packaged in plastic bottles.

Uses: As a store cupboard standby or to take on holiday or picnics where refrigeration facilities are limited,

To store: Sterilised milk will keep for several months unopened without refrigeration. Once opened it should be treated as fresh and stored in the fridge for up to 5 days.

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UHT

Ultra heat treated (UHT) milk is sterilised for a very short period of time and its flavour is less affected than sterilised milk. It is packaged in cartons.

Uses: As a store cupboard standby or to take on holiday or picnics where refrigeration facilities are limited,

To store: UHT milk will keep for several months unopened without refrigeration. Once opened it should be treated as fresh and stored in the fridge for up to 5 days.

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Whole

Also known as full fat milk, this is milk which has not had its fat content altered. It has a fat content of about 4% and contains a range of nutrients and vitamins. Whole milk sold in bottles has a silver cap and a blue cap and label indicates a carton or plastic bottle contains whole milk.

Uses: A popular choice for cooking, because it has a rich flavour, also good for milkshakes and drinks.

To store: Pasteurised whole milk keeps fresh for 5 days or more in the fridge, consume by the use by date.

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